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Flesh vs. Iron

Italian mortar action against American forces

Italian losses had been quite heavy, but that was only the beginning. For along another chain of low hills, 500 meters south of the just seized position, a more solid and better organized American defense line greeted the already worn out Italians with a withering fire. The worst was still to come.

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Regio Esercito, Conflict Between Theories of Employment

The Italian armed forces were faced with a conflict between theories of employment. They had historically been structured for deployment in the mountainous terrain found in Italy and her immediate neighbors. These forces were forced to adapt themselves to a colonial role, and, even more conflicting, to the “War of Rapid Decision.”

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The Battle of Mersa Matruh

Illustration depicting Bersaglieri capturing British soldiers in a cave

The 90th Light Division had by this time been reinforced by Bersaglieri troops of Xth and XXIst Infantry Corps, and groups of the 10th Indian Division at the head of Wadi Nagamish came under heavy tank and machine gun fire from the Littorio Armored Division.

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Graziani vs. Rommel

grazianirommel

Graziani and Rommel led two very different armies in the North Africa front, and in turn, the options they had were not the same. To base any comparison between the success of Erwin Rommel and the failure of Graziani’s Italian forces prior to the German involvement is simply flawed.