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Totensonntag – An Italian Account

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THE SUNDAY OF THE DEAD – LA DOMENICA DEI MORTI (DER TOTENSONNTAG) By Mario Montanari – from his book Le operazioni in Africa settentrionale vol II Tobruk (p. 489-503) Translated and annotated by Jeffrey W.S. Leser ——————————————————– For The Lutheran Church, Sunday, November 23, 1941 was the « Sunday of the Dead » (Totensonntag), dedicated […]

Brigata Corazzata Speciale: An Organizational History

By Jeffrey W.S. Leser At the outbreak of the European war in September 1939, the Italian forces in Africa Settentrionale (A.S.) lacked major armored formations. The Italian Army had established three armored divisions the year before the war, but these were still equipped the small carri veloci (CV) type light tanks that had been found […]

Field Marshal Rodolfo Graziani

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Found guilty in 1948, Rodolfo Graziani was sentenced to 19 years in prison for collaboration with the Germans. However on 1950 he was released.

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Letter from Adolf Hitler to Benito Mussolini on Operation Barbarossa

The situation in England itself is bad; the provision of food and raw materials is growing steadily more difficult. The martial spirit to make war, after all, lives only on hopes. These hopes are based solely on two assumptions: Russia and America.

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Graziani vs. Rommel

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Graziani and Rommel led two very different armies in the North Africa front, and in turn, the options they had were not the same. To base any comparison between the success of Erwin Rommel and the failure of Graziani’s Italian forces prior to the German involvement is simply flawed.