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Magliana, Monterotondo, and Porta San Paolo: The Bloody Battles in Defense of Rome

Marshal Badoglio. Picture courtesy of

The fiercest fighting that would occur between the Italian and German forces took place in the defense of Rome, particularly to the south.

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Military armistice signed at Fairfield Camp, Sicily, September 3, 1943

Italian military armistice signed at Fairfield Camp, Sicily, September 3, 1943. Immediate transfer of the Italian Fleet and Italian aircraft to such points as may be designated by the Allied Commander in Chief, with details of disarmament to be prescribed by him.

Armistice – Instrument of Surrender I

Instrument of surrender signed at Malta September 29, 1943; letter from Commander in Chief of Allied Forces to Head of Italian Government September 29, 1943

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Armistice – Instrument of Surrender II

The Allies intended to propose an Italian surrender in 2 parts, known as the Short Terms and Long Terms. Both parts had been prepared in advance by both a British and American Commission.

Employment and Disposition of Italian Fleet and Merchant Marine (Cunningham-de Courten Agreement); September 23, 1943

The armistice having been signed between the Head of the Italian Government and the Allied Commander -in-Chief under which all Italian warships and the Italian Mercantile Marine were placed unconditionally at the disposal of the United Nations.