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Field Marshal Giovanni Messe

Field Marshal Giovanni Messe

Major General Giovanni Messe felt that he and his 60,000 soldiers were ill equipped for the Nazi invasion of Russia.

King Vittorio Emanuele III of Italy

King Vittorio Emmanuele III

King Vittorio Emanuele III did not support Mussolini personally, but he did nothing to stop Mussolini from wielding a power over the military.

Prince Amedeo Savoia-Aosta: The Warrior Prince of Italy

Prince Amedeo knew the battle of Keren would decide the fate of Italian East Africa.  Picture courtesy of Royaltyguide.

The Duke launched small operations at both the British in Kenya and the French in French Somalia in June of 1940. The main assault on British Somaliland started on August 3rd 1940. The Duke had about 25,000 men fighting under the leadership of General Guglielmo Nasi pour into the British territory that day. They captured town after town, and by August 19th the last British troops who were pushed to the coast were now evacuated to the sea by the Royal Navy.

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Enrico Fermi

Enrico Fermi

Fermi attended the University of Pisa, graduating in 1922. He became a lecturer at the University of Florence for two years and then professor of theoretical physics in Rome. In 1934, while at the University of Rome, Fermi began experiments where he bombarded a variety of elements with neutrons.

Giulio Douhet


An early supporter of strategic bombing and the military superiority of air forces was General Giulio Douhet. He argued that command of an enemy’s air space and subsequent bombing of industrialized centers would be so disruptive and destructive that the pressure for peace would be overwhelming.

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